Forward osmosis processes for desalination: Evolution, case studies, and future directions

Tian C. Zhang, Ye Yuan, Rao Y. Surampalli

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


This chapter introduces the principle of forward osmosis processes for desalination (FOD) and historical evolution of desalination technologies from reverse osmosis (RO) to FO, followed by an in-depth presentation of different case studies on FOD processes. Several case studies discuss important achievements in and engineering challenges and commercialization of the FOD process. One case study is about wastewater reclamation with FO and Red Sea seawater. In this case, the first objective was to achieve a new design for efficient FO configuration; the second objective was to study feed waters and draw solutions to achieve an optimal coupling of FO and RO. To achieve the objectives, a custom-made plate and frame configuration for the membranes was designed, implemented, and studied. The chapter summarizes FO operating conditions, performance, and key issues related to design/management, future trends, and research directions of FO for desalination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationForward Osmosis
Subtitle of host publicationFundamentals and Applications
PublisherAmerican Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Number of pages36
ISBN (Electronic)9780784479230
ISBN (Print)9780784414071
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)


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