Using an in-depth case study, we examine the origins and development of the Southern California-based racist skinhead gang known as Public Enemy Number One (PENI). Unlike many racist skinheads who view themselves as part of a political movement, members of PENI view themselves as part of a racist street gang with relatively little interest in traditional forms of political activism. Instead and contrary to the focus of most scholarly research on racist groups, PENI is involved in profit-oriented criminal activity such as the distribution of methamphetamine, identity theft, and counterfeiting. We examine how members of PENI attempt to balance a white supremacist and street gang identity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Sociology and Political Science