G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) has been reported to play a significant role in mediating the rapid estrogen actions in a wide range of normal and cancer cells. G-1 was initially developed as a selective agonist for GPER. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of G-1 are unknown, and recent studies report inconsistent effects of G-1 on the growth of breast cancer cells. By employing highresolution laser scanning confocal microscopy and time-lapse imaging technology, as well as biochemical analyses, in the current study, we provide convincing in vitro and in vivo evidence that G-1 is able to suppress the growth of breast cancer cells independent of the expression status of GPERs and classic estrogen receptors. Interestingly, we found that triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBC) are very sensitive to G-1 treatment. We found that G-1 arrested the cell cycle in the prophase of mitosis, leading to caspase activation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Our mechanistic studies indicated that G-1, similar to colchicine and 2-methoxyestradiol, binds to colchicine binding site on tubulin, inhibiting tubulin polymerization and subsequent assembly of normal mitotic spindle apparatus during breast cancer cell mitosis. Therefore, G-1 is a novel microtubule-Targeting agent and could be a promising antimicrotubule drug for breast cancer treatment, especially for TNBC treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research