Gaze Stabilization Test Asymmetry Score as an Indicator of Previous Concussion in a Cohort of Collegiate Football Players

Julie A. Honaker, Robin E. Criter, Jessie N. Patterson, Sherri M. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Objective: Vestibular dysfunction may lead to decreased visual acuity with head movements, which may impede athletic performance and result in injury. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that athletes with history of concussion would have differences in gaze stabilization test (GST) as compared with those without a history of concussion. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive. Setting: University Athletic Medicine Facility. Participants: Fifteen collegiate football players with a history of concussion, 25 collegiate football players without a history of concussion. Intervention: Participants completed the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), static visual acuity, perception time test, active yaw plane GST, stability evaluation test (SET), and a bedside oculomotor examination. Main Outcome Measures: Independent samples t test was used to compare GST, SET, and DHI scores per group, with Bonferroni-adjusted alpha at P < 0.01. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and area under the curve (AUC) were used to assess the clinical performance of the GST and SET. Results: Athletes with previous concussion had a larger GST asymmetry score [mean (M) = 12.40, SD = 9.09] than those without concussion (M = 4.92, SD = 4.67; t (18.70) = -2.955, P = 0.008, 95% CI, -12.79 to -2.18, d = -1.37). Clinical performance of the GST (AUC = 0.77) was better than the SET (AUC = 0.61). Conclusions: Results suggest peripheral vestibular or vestibular-visual interaction deficits in collegiate athletes with a history of concussion. The results support further research on the use of GST for sport-related concussion evaluation and monitoring. Clinical Relevance: Inclusion of objective vestibular tests in the concussion protocol may reveal the presence of peripheral vestibular or visual-vestibular deficits. Therefore, the GST may add an important perspective on the effects of concussion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-366
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Journal of Sport Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 8 2015


  • concussion
  • gaze stabilization test
  • head injury
  • postural control
  • vestibulo-ocular reflex
  • visual acuity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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