Gene inoculation generates immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus type 1

Bin Wang, Kenneth E. Ugen, Vasantha Srikantan, Michael G. Agadjanyan, Kesen Dang, Yosef Refaeli, Alice I. Sato, Jean Boyer, William V. Williams, David B. Weiner

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633 Scopus citations


Recently, immunization techniques in which DNA constructs are introduced directly into mammalian tissue in vivo have been developed. In theory, gene inoculation should result in the production of antigenic proteins in a natural form in the immunized host. Here we present the use of such a technique for the inoculation of mice with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope DNA construct (pM160). Mice were injected intramuscularly with pM160 and were subsequently analyzed for their anti-HIV envelope immune responses. Antisera collected from inoculated animals reacted with the recombinant HIV-1 envelope in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays. The antisera also contained antibodies that were able to neutralize HIV-1 infection and inhibit HIV-1-mediated syncytium formation in vitro. Furthermore, splenic lymphocytes derived from pM160-inoculated animals demonstrated HIV-envelope-specific proliferative responses. The gene inoculation technique mimics features of vaccination with live attenuated viruses and, therefore, may ultimately prove useful in the rapid development of safe and efficacious vaccines as it provides for production of relevant antigen in vivo without the use of infectious agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4156-4160
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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