Background: Disturbances in gonadal development lead to increased risk of gonadal malignancy in some but not all patients with differences in sex development (DSD). However, the natural history of these tumors is poorly described, and the literature remains sparse. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) and germ cell tumor (GCT) in a contemporary cohort of patients with DSD undergoing surgery and to provide long-term oncologic outcomes for these patients. Study design: Patients with DSD who have undergone gonadectomy or gonadal biopsy were identified at four institutions. Clinical characteristics, pathology, and treatment details were obtained retrospectively. Patients were stratified into risk categories based on DSD diagnosis. Oncologic treatment and outcomes were recorded. Descriptive statistics are reported using parametric methods. Results: 83 patients were identified. Distribution of diagnoses is summarized in the summary table. 14 (16.9%) patients underwent gonadal biopsy, and 71 (85.5%) patients underwent gonadectomy (50/71 gonadectomies were bilateral). 8/83 (9.6%) patients had GCNIS or GCT (7 GCNIS, 1 GCT). Median age at surgery was 2.95 years (y) (interquartile range [IQR] 0.6–12.2) and 14y (IQR 0.85–16.9) in patients without and with GCNIS/GCT, respectively. All 8 patients with GCNIS/GCT had high or intermediate risk DSD diagnoses (4 mixed gonadal dysgenesis, 3 Turner with Y, 1 partial gonadal dysgenesis). Of the patients with high-risk diagnoses, 8/54 (15%) had GCNIS/GCT. No patient received adjuvant therapy, no patient had a recurrence, and all patients were living with mean follow up 6.4y. Discussion: The risk of gonadal malignancy is heterogeneous in the DSD population and can vary based on DSD diagnosis as well as maturation, testicularization, and location of the gonads. The most recent consensus recommendations on gonadal management emphasize risk stratification and consideration of gonadal surveillance based on gender of rearing, but supporting literature remains sparse. In this contemporary cohort of DSD patients who underwent gonadal surgery, most patients did not have evidence of adverse pathology, all patients with malignant or premalignant pathology had a high/intermediate risk DSD diagnosis, and all patients with GCNIS/GCT were treated with surgery alone without recurrence. Conclusions: The distribution of patients with premalignant and malignant gonadal pathology and DSD in this cohort aligns with prior literature, and oncologic outcomes were excellent. These data add valuable information to the current literature and highlight the necessity to develop appropriate screening regimens for retained gonads.
- Differences of sex development
- Gonadal tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health