Gout, Hyperuricaemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network (G-CAN) consensus statement regarding labels and definitions of disease states of gout

David Bursill, William J. Taylor, Robert Terkeltaub, Abhishek Abhishek, Alexander K. So, Ana Beatriz Vargas-Santos, Angelo Lino Gaffo, Ann Rosenthal, Anne Kathrin Tausche, Anthony Reginato, Bernhard Manger, Carlo Sciré, Carlos Pineda, Caroline Van Durme, Ching Tsai Lin, Congcong Yin, Daniel Arthur Albert, Edyta Biernat-Kaluza, Edward Roddy, Eliseo PascualFabio Becce, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Francisca Sivera, Frédéric Lioté, Georg Schett, George Nuki, Georgios Filippou, Geraldine Mccarthy, Geraldo Da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Hang Korng Ea, Helena De Almeida Tupinambá, Hisashi Yamanaka, Hyon K. Choi, James Mackay, James R. Odell, Janitzia Vázquez Mellado, Jasvinder A. Singh, John D. Fitzgerald, Lennart T.H. Jacobsson, Leo Joosten, Leslie R. Harrold, Lisa Stamp, Mariano Andrés, Marwin Gutierrez, Masanari Kuwabara, Mats Dehlin, Matthijs Janssen, Michael Doherty, Michael S. Hershfield, Michael Pillinger, N. Lawrence Edwards, Naomi Schlesinger, Nitin Kumar, Ole Slot, Sebastien Ottaviani, Pascal Richette, Paul A. Macmullan, Peter T. Chapman, Peter E. Lipsky, Philip Robinson, Puja P. Khanna, Rada N. Gancheva, Rebecca Grainger, Richard J. Johnson, Ritch Te Kampe, Robert T. Keenan, Sara K. Tedeschi, Seoyoung Kim, Sung Jae Choi, Theodore R. Fields, Thomas Bardin, Till Uhlig, Tim Jansen, Tony Merriman, Tristan Pascart, Tuhina Neogi, Viola Klück, Worawit Louthrenoo, Nicola Dalbeth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Objective There is a lack of standardisation in the terminology used to describe gout. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus statement describing the recommended nomenclature for disease states of gout. Methods A content analysis of gout-related articles from rheumatology and general internal medicine journals published over a 5-year period identified potential disease states and the labels commonly assigned to them. Based on these findings, experts in gout were invited to participate in a Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting to reach agreement on disease state labels and definitions. Results The content analysis identified 13 unique disease states and a total of 63 unique labels. The Delphi exercise (n=76 respondents) and face-to-face meeting (n=35 attendees) established consensus agreement for eight disease state labels and definitions. The agreed labels were as follows: asymptomatic hyperuricaemia', asymptomatic monosodium urate crystal deposition', asymptomatic hyperuricaemia with monosodium urate crystal deposition', gout', tophaceous gout', erosive gout', first gout flare' and recurrent gout flares'. There was consensus agreement that the label gout' should be restricted to current or prior clinically evident disease caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition (gout flare, chronic gouty arthritis or subcutaneous tophus). Conclusion Consensus agreement has been established for the labels and definitions of eight gout disease states, including gout' itself. The Gout, Hyperuricaemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network recommends the use of these labels when describing disease states of gout in research and clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1592-1600
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of the rheumatic diseases
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019


  • gout
  • hyperuricemia
  • language
  • monosodium urate crystals
  • nomenclature
  • terminology
  • urate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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