GRAS flavoring substances 25

R. L. Smith, W. J. Waddell, S. M. Cohen, S. Fukushima, N. J. Gooderham, S. S. Hecht, L. J. Marnett, P. S. Portoghese, I. M C M Rietjens, T. B. Adams, C. Lucas Gavin, M. M. Mcgowen, S. V. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) provides an update on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under the Food Additives Amendment. The Panel re-evaluated all relevant metabolic and toxicity data for these flavor ingredients within the context of their increased use levels in chewing gum. Pyridine was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) in 2010 based upon its efficient detoxification in humans; its low level of flavor use; the lack of genotoxic and mutagenic potential. The substance 2-hexyl- 4-acetoxytetrahydrofuran was removed from the GRAS list. The FEMA Expert Panel concludes that the neutral, hydrated, and salt forms of GRAS substances that are physiologically equivalent are assigned the same GRAS number. The same GRAS number would also be applied to the sodium, potassium, calcium, ferrous, ferric, ammonium, and quaternary ammonium salts derived from FEMA GRAS amines, carboxylates, sulfonates, sulfamates, or sulfates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-75
Number of pages32
JournalFood Technology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Chemistry(all)


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