Growth, carcass traits, and plasma amino acid concentrations of gilts fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids including histidine, isoleucine, and valine

J. L. Figueroa, A. J. Lewis, P. S. Miller, R. L. Fischer, R. M. Diedrichsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Scopus citations

Abstract

Three experiments were conducted to determine the fifth-limiting amino acid for growing pigs in an 11% CP, corn-soybean meal diet. In each experiment, 36 gilts (initial weight 19.5, 21.9, and 21.0 kg, respectively) were penned individually and fed one of six diets in a randomized block design for 35 d. Diets containing 16, 12, and 11% CP were fed in each experiment. All 12 and 11% CP diets were supplemented with lysine, tryptophan, threonine, and methionine to provide the same total concentrations as those in the 16% CP diet. In Exp. 1, the 11% CP diet was supplemented with isoleucine, valine, or isoleucine + valine to concentrations equal to those in the 16% CP diet. In Exp. 2, the 11% CP diet was supplemented with histidine, histidine + valine, or histidine + isoleucine + valine. In Exp. 3, the 11% CP diet was supplemented with valine, histidine + valine, or isoleucine + valine. Gilts were allowed free access to feed and water. In all experiments, ADG and feed efficiency (G/F) were reduced (P < 0.07) as dietary protein was reduced. Supplementation of isoleucine alone further reduced (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, G/F, and fat-free lean gain. In contrast, supplementation of valine alone resulted in numerical increases in ADG and ADFI in two experiments, although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Supplementation with histidine and valine together resulted in growth performance equal to or greater than that of pigs fed the 12% CP diet, but less than that of pigs fed the 16% CP diet. Supplementation of isoleucine and valine together resulted in better growth performance (P < 0.05) than supplementation of either amino acid alone. In two experiments (Exp. 1 and 3), supplementation of the 11% CP diet with isoleucine and valine together resulted in ADG that were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of pigs fed the 16% CP diet. Supplementation of all three amino acids (Exp. 2) did not improve performance over supplementation with histidine and valine. Plasma urea concentrations were reduced (P < 0.05) as dietary protein was lowered from 16 to 12%. Additions of crystalline amino acids did not affect plasma urea levels. Plasma amino acid concentrations reflected the dietary additions of crystalline amino acids, but did not assist in the identification of the sequence of limiting amino acids. These data suggest that valine is the fifth-limiting amino acid and that either histidine or isoleucine is the sixth-limiting amino acid in an 11% CP diet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1529-1537
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume81
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2003

Keywords

  • Amino Acids
  • Crude Protein
  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Pigs
  • Valine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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