Guidelines for evaluating myocardial cell death

Paras K. Mishra, Adriana Adameova, Joseph A. Hill, Christopher P. Baines, Peter M. Kang, James M. Downey, Jagat Narula, Masafumi Takahashi, Antonio Abbate, Hande C. Piristine, Sumit Kar, Shi Su, Jason K. Higa, Nicholas K. Kawasaki, Takashi Matsui

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

129 Scopus citations


Cell death is a fundamental process in cardiac pathologies. Recent studies have revealed multiple forms of cell death, and several of them have been demonstrated to underlie adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure. With the expansion in the area of myocardial cell death and increasing concerns over rigor and reproducibility, it is important and timely to set a guideline for the best practices of evaluating myocardial cell death. There are six major forms of regulated cell death observed in cardiac pathologies, namely apoptosis, necroptosis, mitochondrial-mediated necrosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this article, we describe the best methods to identify, measure, and evaluate these modes of myocardial cell death. In addition, we discuss the limitations of currently practiced myocardial cell death mechanisms. Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at guidelines-for-evaluating-myocardial-cell-death/.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H891-H922
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2019


  • Apoptosis
  • Autophagic cell death
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Ferroptosis
  • Heart
  • Mitochondrial-mediated necrosis
  • Necroptosis
  • Pyroptosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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