Hand-Arm Bimanual Intensive Training in Virtual Reality: A Feasibility Study

James E. Gehringer, Elizabeth Fortin, Swati M. Surkar, Jie Hao, Monica Pleiss, Sandra Jensen-Willett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) software built using the core concepts of hand-arm bimanual intensive training (HABIT) for improving upper extremity motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Eight children with CP participated in a 10-day, 40-hour HABIT program. Half of the time custom VR software, HABIT-VR was used. The children's motor skills were assessed pre- and postintervention with the Assisting Hand Assessment, Box and Blocks Test, and Nine-Hole Peg Test. Results: The children had significant and clinically relevant changes in the Assisting Hand Assessment and Box and Blocks Test; however, Nine-Hole Peg Test scores did not change with intervention. Conclusion: These data suggest that combining traditional HABIT strategies with HABIT-VR games improve upper extremity function and gross motor skills but not fine motor skills.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-91
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Physical Therapy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • cerebral palsy
  • intensive rehabilitation
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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