Purpose of reviewGout, the most common type of inflammatory arthritis in the world, is characterized by painful episodes of arthritis linked by asymptomatic intercritical periods of hyperuricemia. Once characterized as a disease of wealthy white men, contemporary evidence demonstrates gout disproportionately afflicts racial/ethnic minorities, Indigenous populations and other underrepresented groups leading to significant health disparities.Recent findingsHerein, we review the current literature reporting a higher incidence and prevalence of gout in racial/ethnic minorities and Indigenous populations, in addition to a growing gout burden reported in females. We also examine how these population are more likely to receive suboptimal treatment for flares and chronic phases of gout. Additionally, we examine biologic and social health determinants that may be contributing to these findings.SummaryRacial/ethnic minorities, Indigenous populations, and females have experienced a disproportionate rise in the prevalence and incidence of gout in recent years, are more likely to seek acute medical care and are less likely to receive optimal long-term care for gout with urate lowering therapy. Mechanisms underpinning these findings appear to be multifactorial and include differences in social determinants of care and in some cases may be due to population differences in select biologic factors such as differences in age, sex, genetics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)120-125
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent opinion in rheumatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024


  • gout
  • health determinants
  • health disparities
  • hyperuricemia
  • indigenous
  • race
  • sex
  • socioeconomic factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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