There are several syndromes in which both hearing and renal function are impaired. The two best known are branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome and Alport syndrome. These are reviewed along with several other rarer syndromes. BOR is especially important since it is likely to be first recognized by the otolaryngologist because of the hearing and branchial anomalies. It is important for the practicing otolaryngologist to recognize these disorders and to ensure that renal problems are being treated. In addition, the syndromes discussed here are all hereditaryand referral to a clinical geneticist may be helpful to the individual and family.