Heat flux measurements and modeling of malodorous compounds above an anaerobic swine lagoon

John H. Loughrin, Arturo I. Quintanar, Nanh C. Lovanh, Rezaul Mahmood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The concentration of p-cresol and p-ethylphenol, two malodorants typical of swine waste, were measured at 0.5 and 1.5 m above a waste treatment lagoon during two separate campaigns encompassing late winter through early spring and late spring through early summer. Concomitant collection of air temperatures, humidities, insolation, and wind speeds, as well as water column temperatures were done so that heat fluxes could be computed using an energy budget method and Bowen ratio estimates. The empirical model that was found to correlate best with variations in malodorant concentrations and gradients above the lagoon had the terms describing evaporation from the lagoon surface and net available energy at the lagoon surface. Emissions were found to be much higher during the cool season than the warm season. This was despite much higher evaporation rates during the warm season. This could be explained by much lower lagoon concentrations of the malodorants in the warm season than in the cool season. Results of this work are being used to determine appropriate models to estimate malodorant emissions from lagoons and devise techniques for the abatement of nuisance emissions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)463-471
Number of pages9
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - May 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Evaporation
  • Heat flux
  • Lagoon
  • Malodor
  • p-cresol
  • p-ethylphenol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution


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