Hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin in the absence of matrix metalloproteinase-9

Simon N. Robinson, S. M. Seina, J. C. Gohr, J. G. Sharp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


The use of mobilized hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) has largely replaced the use of bone marrow HPC for autologous and allogeneic transplantation; however, the mechanisms of HPC mobilization remain unclear. A better understanding of these mechanisms, may allow the development of improved (potentially more rapid and/or higher yield) HPC mobilization strategies, especially for patients who mobilize poorly using current mobilization protocols. Clinically, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to induce HPC mobilization, and evidence suggests that metalloproteinase enzymes released by activated granulocytes play an important role in the G-CSF-induced HPC mobilization. These enzymes may act to disrupt putative cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix interactions within the hematopoietic microenvironment thereby releasing HPC into the blood. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) appears to be important for G-CSF-induced mobilization. Using an MMP-9 knock-out (KO) mouse model, we investigated the role of MMP-9 in G-CSF and erythropoietin (EPO)-based HPC mobilization at clinically relevant cytokine doses. There were few hematologic or hematopoietic differences between the wild-type and MMP-9KO mice during steady-state hematopoiesis. When treated subcutaneously with EPO (500 U/kg per day) and G-CSF (15 μg/kg per day) for 5 days and assayed on day 6, similarly increased extramedullary hematopoiesis and numbers of HPC in the spleen and blood were observed for both the wild-type and MMP-9KO mice. These data demonstrate that MMP-9 is not required for EPO + G-CSF mobilization and that alternative mobilization mechanisms must be active at clinically relevant cytokine concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-328
Number of pages12
JournalStem Cells and Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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