1. The use of low-dose immunosuppressive therapy along with pre- and posttransplantation nucleos(t)ide therapy and posttransplantation hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) has yielded marked improvements in survival. 2. Lamivudine (Epivir-HBV), adefovir (Hepsera), entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), emtricitabine (Emtriva), and the combination drugs tenofovir + emtricitabine (Truvada) and abacavir + lamivudine (Epzicom) are effective nucleos(t)ide antiviral agents that, in some cases, may help reverse liver disease sufficiently to avoid transplant. 3. In posttransplantation patients, virus suppression with some combination of HBIG and the nucleos(t)ide agents may prevent graft loss and death or the need for a second transplant. 4. In both the pre- and posttransplantation setting, the goal of hepatitis B virus management is complete virus suppression. 5. The use of low-dose intramuscular HBIG is evolving, with studies showing that dosing and cost can be reduced by 50-300% with a customized approach. 6. Elimination of HBIG from the treatment paradigm is currently under evaluation and may be possible with the use of newer medications that have no or low resistance rates. 7. Although there is growing evidence that some types of combination therapy may decrease the chance that drug resistance will develop and increase the likelihood of long-term success in preventing graft loss and death, additional research will be required to determine which combir tions will work well in the long term, and which will not.
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