High muscle co-contraction does not result in high joint forces during gait in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees

Ashutosh Khandha, Kurt Manal, Jacob Capin, Elizabeth Wellsandt, Adam Marmon, Lynn Snyder-Mackler, Thomas S. Buchanan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

The mechanism of knee osteoarthritis development after anterior cruciate ligament injuries is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate knee gait variables, muscle co-contraction indices and knee joint loading in young subjects with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD, n = 36), versus control subjects (n = 12). A validated, electromyography-informed model was used to estimate joint loading. For the involved limb of ACLD subjects versus control, muscle co-contraction indices were higher for the medial (p = 0.018, effect size = 0.93) and lateral (p = 0.028, effect size = 0.83) agonist–antagonist muscle pairs. Despite higher muscle co-contraction, medial compartment contact force was lower for the involved limb, compared to both the uninvolved limb (mean difference = 0.39 body weight, p = 0.009, effect size = 0.70) as well as the control limb (mean difference = 0.57 body weight, p = 0.007, effect size = 1.14). Similar observations were made for total contact force. For involved versus uninvolved limb, the ACLD group demonstrated lower vertical ground reaction force (mean difference = 0.08 body weight, p = 0.010, effect size = 0.70) and knee flexion moment (mean difference = 1.32% body weight * height, p = 0.003, effect size = 0.76), during weight acceptance. These results indicate that high muscle co-contraction does not always result in high knee joint loading, which is thought to be associated with knee osteoarthritis. Long-term follow-up is required to evaluate how gait alterations progress in non-osteoarthritic versus osteoarthritic subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)104-112
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Volume37
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2019

Keywords

  • ACL
  • joint forces
  • knee
  • muscle co-contraction
  • musculoskeletal modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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