HIV-1 effects on neuropsychological performance in a resource-limited country, Zambia

Adelina Holguin, Mwanza Banda, Elizabeth J. Willen, Costantine Malama, Kaseya O. Chiyenu, Victor C. Mudenda, Charles Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Zambia has substantially been affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic with prevalence rates at 14% in a population estimated at 12 million. Yet, the extent of HIVassociated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in this population remains to be clearly understood.Aseries of culturally appropriate neuropsychological (NP) assessments [International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Color Trails Test 1 and 2, Grooved pegboard Test, and Time Gait Test] were used to test the effects of HIV on NP performance of HIV seropositive and seronegative individuals. Twenty-two percent HIV positive individuals ARV naïve met the criteria for IHDSdefined NP impairment. Gender significantly influenced the performance on NP tests with females performing more poorly compared to males. Larger studies that will accommodate gender differences and age are necessary to generate appropriate norms in Zambia in order to better assess the prevalence of HAND in the developing country setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1895-1901
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • HIV subtype C
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
  • NeuroAIDs
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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