HIV-1 infection and AIDS: Consequences for the central nervous system

M. Kaul, J. Zheng, S. Okamoto, H. E. Gendelman, S. A. Lipton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

305 Scopus citations


Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) can induce severe and debilitating neurological problems that include behavioral abnormalities, motor dysfunction and frank dementia. After infiltrating peripheral immune competent cells, in particular macrophages, HIV-1 provokes a neuropathological response involving all cell types in the brain. HIV-1 also incites activation of chemokine receptors, inflammatory mediators, extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes and glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity, all of which can trigger numerous downstream signaling pathways and disrupt neuronal and glial function. This review will discuss recently uncovered pathologic neuroimmune and degenerative mechanisms contributing to neuronal damage induced by HIV-1 and potential approaches for development of future therapeutic intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)878-892
Number of pages15
JournalCell Death and Differentiation
StatePublished - 2005


  • Apoptosis
  • Central nervous system
  • Hiv-1
  • Immune activation
  • Inflammation
  • Macrophages/microglia
  • NeuroAids
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neurotoxicity
  • Pharmacology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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