HIV Tat-Mediated Induction of Monocyte Transmigration Across the Blood–Brain Barrier: Role of Chemokine Receptor CXCR3

Fang Niu, Ke Liao, Guoku Hu, Shamsudheen Moidunny, Sabita Roy, Shilpa Buch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

HIV trans-activator of transcription (Tat), one of the cytotoxic proteins secreted from HIV-infected cells, is also known to facilitate chemokine-mediated transmigration of monocytes into the brain leading, in turn, to neuroinflammation and thereby contributing to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanism(s) underlying HIV Tat-mediated enhancement of monocyte transmigration, however, remain largely unknown. CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) that is expressed by the peripheral monocytes is known to play a role in the monocyte influx and accumulation. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that exposure of human monocytes to HIV Tat protein resulted in upregulated expression of CXCR3 leading, in turn, to increased monocyte transmigration across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) both in the in vitro and in vivo model systems. This process involved activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), with downstream phosphorylation and activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), and subsequent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), ultimately leading to enhanced expression of CXCR3 in human monocytes. These findings imply a novel molecular mechanism underlying HIV Tat-mediated increase of monocyte transmigration across the BBB, while also implicating a novel role of CXCR3-dependent monocyte transmigration in HIV Tat-mediated neuroinflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number724970
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 30 2021

Keywords

  • BBB
  • CXCR3
  • HIV Tat
  • monocytes
  • neuroinflammation
  • transmigration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

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