HIV testing uptake among the household contacts of multidrugresistant tuberculosis index cases in eight countries

V. S. Opollo, X. Wu, M. D. Hughes, S. Swindells, A. Gupta, A. Hesseling, G. Churchyard, S. Kim, R. Lando, R. Dawson, V. Mave, A. Mendoza, P. Gonzales, N. Kumarasamy, F. Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, F. Conradie, J. Shenje, S. N. Fontain, A. Garcia-Prats, A. AsmelashS. Nedsuwan, L. Mohapi, R. Mngqibisa, A. C.Garcia Ferreira, E. Okeyo, L. Naini, L. Jones, B. Smith, N. S. Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


SETTING: The household contacts (HHCs) of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) index cases are at high risk of tuberculous infection and disease progression, particularly if infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV testing is important for risk assessment and clinical management. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, multi-country study of adult MDR-TB index cases and HHCs. All adult and child HHCs were offered HIV testing if never tested or if HIV-negative >1 year previously when last tested. We measured HIV testing uptake and used logistic regression to evaluate predictors. RESULTS: A total of 1007 HHCs of 284 index cases were enrolled in eight countries. HIV status was known at enrolment for 226 (22%) HHCs; 39 (4%) were HIVpositive. HIV testing was offered to 769 (98%) of the 781 remaining HHCs; 544 (71%) agreed to testing. Of 535 who were actually tested, 26 (5%) were HIVinfected. HIV testing uptake varied by site (median 86%, range 0-100%; P < 0.0001), and was lower in children aged <18 years than in adults (59% vs. 78%; adjusted for site P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing of HHCs of MDR-TB index cases is feasible and high-yield, with 5% testing positive. Reasons for low test uptake among children and at specific sites-including sites with high HIV prevalence-require further study to ensure all persons at risk for HIV are aware of their status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1443-1449
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018


  • Barriers
  • HCT testing
  • Willingness to test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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