Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in invasive penile cancers from a registry-based united states population

Brenda Y. Hernandez, Marc T. Goodman, Elizabeth R. Unger, Martin Steinau, Amy Powers, Charles F. Lynch, Wendy Cozen, Maria Sibug Saber, Edward S. Peters, Edward J. Wilkinson, Glenn Copeland, Claudia Hopenhayn, Youjie Huang, Meg Watson, Sean F. Altekruse, Christopher Lyu, Mona Saraiya, Mariela Z. Scarbrough, Trevor Thompson, Deblina DattaSusan Hariri, Bruce Ellis, Natalie Madero, Emily Reid, Donna Little, April Greek, Dale Rhoda, Susan Brossoie, Katherine Gideon, Linda Delma Gieseke, Stephanie Ashcraft, Jill MacKinnon, Carlos Alvarez, Edward Wilkinson, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Amy Wright, Kelley Durden, Brenda Hernandez, Marc Goodman, Hugh Luk, David Horio, Shoji Ikeda, Michael Green, Catherine Grafel-Anderson, Rayna Weise, Freda Selk, Dan Olson, Thomas Tucker, Amy Christian, Edward Peters, Lauren Cole, Tara Ruhlen, Joe House, Myles G. Cockburn, Andre Kim, Lana Ashley, Jetty Alverson, Michelle Hulbert, Won Silva, Samuel Hirsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is estimated to play an etiologic role in 40-50% of penile cancers worldwide. Estimates of HPV prevalence in U.S. penile cancer cases are limited. Methods: HPV DNA was evaluated in tumor tissue from 79 invasive penile cancer patients diagnosed in 1998-2005 within the catchment areas of seven U.S. cancer registries. HPV was genotyped using PCR-based Linear Array and INNO-LiPA assays and compared by demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics and survival. Histological classification was also obtained by independent pathology review. Results: HPV DNA was present in 50 of 79 (63%) of invasive penile cancer cases. Sixteen viral genotypes were detected. HPV 16, found in 46% (36/79) of all cases (72% of HPV-positive cases) was the most prevalent genotype followed equally by HPV 18, 33, and 45, each of which comprised 5% of all cases. Multiple genotypes were detected in 18% of viral positive cases. HPV prevalence did not significantly vary by age, race/ethnicity, population size of geographic region, cancer stage, histology, grade, penile subsite, or prior cancer history. Penile cases diagnosed in more recent years were more likely to be HPV-positive. Overall survival did not significantly vary by HPV status. Conclusion: The relatively high prevalence of HPV in our study population provides limited evidence of a more prominent and, possibly, increasing role of infection in penile carcinogenesis in the U.S. compared to other parts of the world.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberArticle 9
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Volume4 FEB
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • HPV
  • Human papillomavirus
  • Penile cancer
  • Prevalence
  • United states

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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