Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be subset into monocytic (M-), granulocytic (G-) or polymorphonuclear (PMN-), and immature (i-) or early MDSCs and have a role in many disease states. In cancer patients, the frequencies of MDSCs can positively correlate with stage, grade, and survival. Most clinical studies into MDSCs have been undertaken with peripheral blood (PB); however, in the present studies, we uniquely examined MDSCs in the spleens and PB from patients with gastrointestinal cancers. In our studies, MDSCs were rigorously subset using the following markers: Lineage (LIN) (CD3, CD19 and CD56), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD33, CD34, CD45, and CD16. We observed a significantly higher frequency of PMN- and M-MDSCs in the PB of cancer patients as compared to their spleens. Expression of the T-cell suppressive enzymes arginase (ARG1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) were higher on all MDSC subsets for both cancer patients PB and spleen cells as compared to MDSCs from the PB of normal donors. Similar findings for the activation markers lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and program cell death protein 1 (PD-1) were observed. Interestingly, the total MDSC cell number exported to clustering analyses was similar between all sample types; however, clustering analyses of these MDSCs, using these markers, uniquely documented novel subsets of PMN-, M- and i-MDSCs. In summary, we report a comparison of splenic MDSC frequency, subtypes, and functionality in cancer patients to their PB by clustering and cytometric analyses.
- Cancer patient peripheral blood
- Cancer patient spleen
- Flow cytometry
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