Hybrid processes in additive manufacturing

Michael P. Sealy, Gurucharan Madireddy, Robert E. Williams, Prahalada Rao, Maziar Toursangsaraki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


Hybrid additive manufacturing (hybrid-AM) has described hybrid processes and machines as well as multimaterial, multistructural, and multifunctional printing. The capabilities afforded by hybrid-AM are rewriting e design rules for materials and adding a new dimension in e design for additive manufacturing (AM) paradigm. This work primarily focuses on defining hybrid-AM in relation to hybrid manufacturing (HM) and classifying hybrid-AM processes. Hybrid-AM machines, materials, structures, and function are also discussed. Hybrid-AM processes are defined as e use of AM wi one or more secondary processes or energy sources at are fully coupled and synergistically affect part quality, functionality, and/or process performance. Historically, defining HM processes centered on process improvement raer an improvements to part quality or performance; however, e primary goal for e majority of hybrid-AM processes is to improve part quality and part performance raer an improve processing. Hybrid-AM processes are typically a cyclic process chain and are distinguished from postprocessing operations at do not meet e fully coupled criterion. Secondary processes and energy sources include subtractive and transformative manufacturing technologies, such as machining, remelting, peening, rolling, and friction stir processing (FSP). As interest in hybrid-AM grows, new economic and sustainability tools are needed as well as sensing technologies at better facilitate hybrid processing. Hybrid-AM has ushered in e next evolutionary step in AM and has e potential to profoundly change e way goods are manufactured.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number060801
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018


  • additive manufacturing
  • cyclic process chains
  • hybrid processes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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