The non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is partly responsible for inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) response by the infected host. By performing alanine-scanning mutagenesis, we have identified amino acid residues in nsp1α and nsp1Β (the proteolytic products of nsp1) that when substituted with alanine(s) exhibited significant relief of IFN-suppression. A mutant virus (16-5A, in which residues 16-20 of nsp1Β were substituted with alanines) encoding mutant nsp1Β recovered from infectious cDNA clone was shown to be attenuated for growth in vitro and induced significantly higher amount of type I IFN transcripts in infected macrophages. In infected pigs, the 16-5A virus exhibited reduced growth at early times after infection but quickly regained wild type growth properties as a result of substitutions within the mutated sequences. The results indicate a strong selection pressure towards maintaining the IFN-inhibitory property of the virus for successful propagation in pigs.
- Innate immunity
- Non-structural protein 1α and 1Β
- Type-1 interferon inhibition
ASJC Scopus subject areas