INTRODUCTION:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with immune responses with oxidative stress wherein high levels of malondialdehyde result in the formation of a highly stable and immunogenic malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adduct (MAA). Thus, this study evaluated the status of MAA and anti-MAA antibody isotypes in IBD and their potential as novel serological biomarkers for differentiating ulcerative colitis (UC) from Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS:Levels of MAA and anti-MAA antibodies were examined in patients with IBD (171), non-IBD gastrointestinal diseases (77), and controls (83) from 2 independent cohorts using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receiver operating characteristic curves and Youden cutoff index from logistic regression were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity.RESULTS:The MAA and blood immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-MAA antibody levels were significantly elevated in IBD compared with non-IBD patients (P = 0.0008) or controls (P = 0.02). Interestingly, patients with UC showed higher levels of IgG anti-MAA (P < 0.0001) than patients with CD including those with colonic CD (P = 0.0067). The odds ratio by logistic regression analysis predicted stronger association of IgG anti-MAA antibody with UC than CD. Subsequent analysis showed that IgG anti-MAA antibody levels could accurately identify (P = 0.0004) UC in the adult cohort with a sensitivity of 75.3% and a specificity of 71.4% and an area under the curve of 0.8072 (0.7121-0.9024). The pediatric cohort also showed an area under the curve of 0.8801 (0.7988-0.9614) and precisely distinguished (P < 0.0001) UC with sensitivity (95.8%) and specificity (72.3%).DISCUSSION:Circulating IgG anti-MAA antibody levels can serve as a novel, noninvasive, and highly sensitive test to identify patients with UC and possibly differentiate them from patients with CD.
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