Identifying advantages and disadvantages of variable rate irrigation: An updated review

S. A. O’Shaughnessy, S. R. Evett, P. D. Colaizzi, M. A. Andrade, T. H. Marek, D. M. Heeren, F. R. Lamm, J. L. LaRue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Variable rate irrigation (VRI) sprinklers on mechanical move irrigation systems (center pivot or lateral move) have been commercially available since 2004. Although the number of VRI, zone or individual sprinkler, systems adopted to date is lower than expected there is a continued interest to harness this technology, especially when climate variability, regulatory nutrient management, water conservation policies, and declining water for agriculture compound the challenges involved for irrigated crop production. This article reviews the potential advantages and potential disadvantages of VRI technology for moving sprinklers, provides updated examples on such aspects, suggests a protocol for designing and implementing VRI technology and reports on the recent advancements. The advantages of VRI technology are demonstrated in the areas of agronomic improvement, greater economic returns, environmental protection and risk management, while the main drawbacks to VRI technology include the complexity to successfully implement the technology and the lack of evidence that it assures better performance in net profit or water savings. Although advances have been made in VRI technologies, its penetration into the market will continue to depend on tangible and perceived benefits by producers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)837-852
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Engineering in Agriculture
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019


  • Center pivots
  • Crop water use efficiency
  • Irrigation
  • Management zones
  • Moving sprinkler irrigation systems
  • Precision irrigation
  • Sensor based systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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