IL-1 gene polymorphisms, secretion in gingival crevicular fluid, and speed of human orthodontic tooth movement

L. R. Iwasaki, J. R. Chandler, D. B. Marx, J. P. Pandey, J. C. Nickel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Objectives-To investigate genetic, biologic, and mechanical factors that affect speed of human tooth movement. Setting and Sample Population - Sixty-six maxillary canines in 33 subjects were translated distally for 84 days. Material and Methods - Distal compressive stresses of 4, 13, 26, 52, or 78kPa were applied to maxillary canines via segmental mechanics.Dental casts and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected nine to 10 times / subject over 84 days at 1- to 14-day intervals. Three-dimensional tooth movements were measured using a microscope and each subject's series of dental casts. GCF samples were analyzed for total protein, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Cheek-wipe samples from 18 subjects were typed for IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms. Results - Average speeds of distal translation were 0.028 ± 0.012, 0.043 ± 0.019,0.057 ± 0.024, 0.062 ± 0.015, and 0.067 ± 0.024 mm/ day for 4, 13, 26, 52, and 78 kPa, respectively. Most teeth moved showed no lag phase (63 / 66). Three factors significantly affected speed (p = 0.0391) and provided the best predictive model (R2 = 0.691): Activity index [AI = experimental (IL-1b / IL-1RA) / control (IL-1b / IL-1RA)], IL-1RA in GCF, and genotype at IL-1β. Conclusions - Increased AI and decreased IL-1RA in GCF plus having ≥1 copy of allele 2 at IL-1β(+3954) were associated with faster tooth movement in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)129-140
Number of pages12
JournalOrthodontics and Craniofacial Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2009


  • Genetic polymorphism
  • Human
  • Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist
  • Interleukin-1b
  • Tooth movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics
  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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