To provide an update on imaging of the brain and orbit for ophthalmologists. Literature review. A systematic English-language medline search and summary of recent literature on imaging of brain and orbit was performed. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) scanning are the mainstays for the evaluation of most disorders involving the brain and orbit. Computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are relatively newer applications that are useful for the evaluation of arterial and venous disorders. Special sequences such as fat suppression and fluid attenuation inversion recovery are useful techniques for specific ophthalmic indications. Diffusion weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging are improving the evaluation of acute stroke. Functional MRI, positron emission tomography scanning and single photon emission computed tomography may provide useful information regarding brain or tumor metabolism. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has expanded our knowledge of brain function. Newer imaging studies have improved our diagnostic abilities on many fronts, including new sequences, new applications of imaging studies, and functional imaging of brain. New imaging techniques for brain and orbit have an increased potential for improving diagnostic yield. Accurate and timely communication with the neuroradiologist can optimize the prescription and interpretation of imaging in ophthalmology.
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