PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence and describe the characteristics of immune recovery uveitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cytomegalovirus retinitis treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: The records of all patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis from 1995 to 1998 seen at the AIDS Ophthalmology Service of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions were reviewed. Eighty-two patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy were identified. Thirty-three patients (40.2%) were classified as responders to highly active antiretroviral therapy, defined as an increase in CD4+ T-cell count by 50 cells/μL or more to a level of 100 cells/μL or more. RESULTS: Immune recovery uveitis occurred in six patients. Among the 33 patients with an immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy, the incidence rate of immune recovery uveitis was 0.109/person-year. Ocular complications associated with immune recovery uveitis included cystoid macular edema (four patients), epiretinal membranes (two patients), and optic disk neovascularization (one patient). CONCLUSIONS: Immune recovery uveitis was uncommon in our population but may have vision-impairing complications. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.
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