Multiple therapeutic options exist for multiple myeloma (MM), including autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) and immune reconstitution is rapidly becoming an integral part of the care of MM patients. We investigated comprehensive immune profiling (IP) associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). From August 2007 to January 2014, 101 consecutive MM patients underwent peripheral blood IP and marrow MRD testing before and approximately 100 days after AHSCT. Higher pre-AHSCT CD191 B-cell counts correlated with improved 2-year PFS (83% [highest quartile] vs 53% [lowest quartile]; P 5 .01) and OS (93% [highest quartile] vs 63% [lowest quartile]; P 5 .0003). This effect was seen primarily in patients with MRD-positive marrow tests. Higher gd T-cell counts post-AHSCT correlated with improved 2-year PFS (65% [highest quartile] vs 45% [lowest quartile]; P 5 .02) and OS (89% [highest quartile] vs 65% [lowest quartile]; P 5 .01). Higher CD41 central memory (CM) cell counts post-AHSCT were associated with improved 2-year OS (95% [upper quartile] vs 47% [lowest quartile]; P 5 .0003) but not PFS. The higher gd T-cell and CD41 CM-cell count associations were primarily observed in MRD-negative patients post-AHSCT and in patients not receiving maintenance therapy. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that IP before and after AHSCT can be of complementary prognostic value for depth of response. Maintenance therapy seems to overcome negative IP. IP and MRD should be measured in clinical trials of maintenance therapy with novel agents post-AHSCT for MM to confirm their utility for prognosis and management.
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