Background/Objective: Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts (MAA) act as potent immune adjuvants and co-localize with citrullinated antigens in tissues effected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We sought to examine the role of MAA-adducts in promoting RA-related autoimmunity and inflammation. Methods: DBA/J1 mice were immunized with human serum albumin (HSA), HSA-MAA, citrullinated HSA (HSA-Cit), or HSA-MAA-Cit with subsequent measurement of serum anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) and anti-Cit T cell responses. Cellular binding of the same antigens was examined using THP-1 monocytes and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells transfected with specific scavenger receptors (SRs: TLR4, SR-B2, SREC-1). The effects of these antigens on THP-1 activation were then examined by quantifying plate adherence, pro-inflammatory (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-10) cytokine release, and SR (CD14, SR-B2)/co-stimulatory molecule (CD80, HLA-DR) expression. Comparisons were completed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: Mice immunized with co-modified HSA produced significantly higher ACPA concentrations than all other groups whereas T cell responses to citrullinated proteins were highest following immunization with HSA-MAA. Both transfected CHO and THP-1 cells demonstrated significantly higher binding of HSA-MAA-Cit vs. HSA or HSA-Cit. THP-1 cells exposed to HSA-MAA-Cit expressed significantly higher concentrations of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-10 vs. all other groups. Furthermore, THP-1 cells demonstrated significantly increased plate adherence and higher expression of CD14, SR-B2, and HLA-DR following incubation with HSA-MAA-Cit vs. HSA or HSA-Cit. Conclusion: These studies demonstrate that MAA-adduction of citrullinated antigen greatly enhances immune and cellular responses, potentially acting as a key co-factor in RA pathogenesis.
- Anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)
- Rheumatoid arthritis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy