The immunologic hallmark of atopic allergy and asthma is an increased production of IgE and T helper (h) type 2 cell cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13) by Th cells reacting to common environmental allergens. All of us inhale allergens and healthy non-atopics produce allergen-specific IgG1, IgG4 and the Th1 cytokine interferon-α, as well as IL-12 from macrophages. We now have many modalities of immunomodulation to decrease the effect of IL-4 or IL-5 or production and level of IgE or agents to shift the immune response from a Th2 to a Th1 response, thereby decreasing the allergic inflammatory response in the airways. In the present review we focus on conventional immunotherapy, mycobacterial vaccines, DNA vaccines using cytosine guanosine, inhibitors of IL-4 and IL-5 and anti-IgE: Omalizumab.
- Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine
- Bronchial asthma
- Cytosine guanosine oligonucleotide
- Th1/Th2 cytokines
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy