Immunomodulatory Effects of Vitamin D and Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections and COVID-19

Marni E. Shoemaker, Linda M. Huynh, Cory M. Smith, Vikkie A. Mustad, Maria O. Duarte, Joel T. Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Little is known about potential protective factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), referred to as COVID-19. Suboptimal vitamin D status is a risk factor for immune dysfunction, respiratory tract infections (RTIs), and viral infections. Supplementation of vitamin D (2000-4000 IU) has decreased incidence and complications from RTIs, respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumonia and may be beneficial in high-risk populations. Given the possible link between low vitamin D status and RTIs, such as COVID-19, this review examined whether vitamin D supplementation can be supported as a nutritional strategy for reducing risk of infection, complications, and mortality from COVID-19 and found that the relationship between vitamin D and RTIs warrants further exploration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-217
Number of pages15
JournalTopics in Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • nutrients
  • respiratory tract infection
  • supplementation
  • vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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