Immunotherapy: an emerging modality to checkmate brain metastasis

Aatiya Ahmad, Parvez Khan, Asad Ur Rehman, Surinder Kumar Batra, Mohd Wasim Nasser

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The diagnosis of brain metastasis (BrM) has historically been a dooming diagnosis that is nothing less than a death sentence, with few treatment options for palliation or prolonging life. Among the few treatment options available, brain radiotherapy (RT) and surgical resection have been the backbone of therapy. Within the past couple of years, immunotherapy (IT), alone and in combination with traditional treatments, has emerged as a reckoning force to combat the spread of BrM and shrink tumor burden. This review compiles recent reports describing the potential role of IT in the treatment of BrM in various cancers. It also examines the impact of the tumor microenvironment of BrM on regulating the spread of cancer and the role IT can play in mitigating that spread. Lastly, this review also focuses on the future of IT and new clinical trials pushing the boundaries of IT in BrM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111
JournalMolecular cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Anticancer immunity
  • Brain metastases
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • Immunotherapy
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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