Impact of Bronchiectasis on COPD Severity and Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency as a Risk Factor in Individuals with a Heavy Smoking History

for the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Rationale: Bronchiectasis is common among those with heavy smoking histories, but risk factors for bronchiectasis, including alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and its implications for COPD severity are uncharacterized in such individuals. Objectives: To characterize the impact of bronchiectasis on COPD and explore alpha-1antitrypsin as a risk factor for bronchiectasis. Methods: SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) participants (N=914; ages 40–80 years; ≥20-pack-year smoking) had high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans interpreted visually for bronchiectasis, based on airway dilation without fibrosis or cicatrization. We performed regression-based models of bronchiectasis with clinical outcomes and quantitative CT measures. We deeply sequenced the gene encoding -alpha-1 antitrypsin, SERPINA1, in 835 participants to test for rare variants, focusing on the PiZ genotype (Glu366Lys, rs28929474). Measurements and Main Results: We identified bronchiectasis in 365 (40%) participants, more frequently in women (45% versus 36%, p=0.0045), older participants (mean age=66[standard deviation (SD)=8.3] versus 64[SD=9.1] years, p=0.0083), and those with lower lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] percentage predicted=66%[SD=27] versus 77%[SD=25], p<0.0001; FEV1 to forced vital capacity [FVC] ratio=0.54[0.17] versus 0.63[SD=0.16], p<0.0001). Participants with bronchiectasis had greater emphysema (%voxels ≤-950 Hounsfield units, 11%[SD=12] versus 6.3%[SD=9], p<0.0001) and parametric response mapping functional small airways disease (26[SD=15] versus 19[SD=15], p<0.0001). Bronchiectasis was more frequent in the combined PiZZ and PiMZ genotype groups compared to those without PiZ, PiS, or other rare pathogenic variants (N=21 of 40 [52%] versus N=283 of 707[40%], odds ratio [OR]=1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.002, 3.90, p=0.049), an association attributed to White individuals (OR=1.98; 95%CI = 0.9956, 3.9; p=0.051). Conclusions: Bronchiectasis was common in those with heavy smoking histories and was associated with detrimental clinical and radiographic outcomes. Our findings support alpha-1antitrypsin guideline recommendations to screen for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in an appropriate bronchiectasis subgroup with a significant smoking history.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)199-210
Number of pages12
JournalChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Keywords

  • COPD
  • alpha-1 antitrypsin
  • bronchiectasis
  • lung function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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