Background. Pharmacogenetic profiling of transplant recipients demonstrates that the marked variation in the metabolism of immunosuppressive medications, particularly tacrolimus, is related to genetic variants. Patients of African ancestry are less likely to carry loss-of-function (LoF) variants in the CYP3A5 gene and therefore retain a rapid metabolism phenotype and higher clearance of tacrolimus. Patients with this rapid metabolism typically require higher dosing to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations. This study aims to further characterize the impact of CYP3A5 genotype on clinical outcomes and financial expenditure. Methods. The CYP3A5 phenotype status was identified in 438 adult kidney transplant (KTx) recipients (96% were African American) using 3 LoF alleles (CYP3A5∗3, ∗6 or ∗7). Individuals were categorized as rapid metabolism phenotype without LoF alleles‚ intermediate phenotype for 1 LoF allele‚ and slow phenotype for 2 LoF alleles. KTx outcomes (patient/kidney survival and Medicare spending) were determined using linked transplant registry and claims data. Results. Among the cohort, 23% had a rapid, 47% intermediate, and 30% a slow metabolism phenotype based on genotype. At 3 y, the rate of death censored graft failure and all cause graft failure was highest in the rapid metabolism phenotype and lowest in the intermediate metabolism phenotype group. First-year Medicare reimbursement differed significantly by genotype (rapid: $79 535, intermediate: $72 796, slow: $79 346, P = 0.03). After adjustment for donor and recipient characteristics, care for patients with intermediate metabolism was $4790 less expensive (P = 0.003). Conclusions. Pharmacogenomic assessment of African American KTx recipients may be useful to guide therapy when as CYP3A5 functional variants appear to be associated with differential outcome and spending after transplant.
ASJC Scopus subject areas