Impedance measurement source and microphone proximity effects

D. H. Keefe, I. A.H. Benade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


The input impedance Zinas normally defined is the air column pressure response to a unit plane-wave flow excitation. The experimental measurement of Zinfor an arbitrary air column is affected by the nearfield interactions between an excitory source (capillary, annulus, membrane, etc.) and microphone. In addition to the plane-wave component, the source produces a local disturbance (due to the evanescent modes) at the microphone. The net microphone pressure pmcan be written in terms of the source strength usthe wave impedance R0and radius a of the air column entryway, and wavenumber k:pm= usR0[(Zin/ R0) + jka&]. The evanescent mode factor & is real and independent of frequency for ka < 1. Its value depends on the source and microphone geometry. Measured values agree with detailed calculation. Placement of one transducer along the center axis of the air column, with the other at R =0.6a from the center eliminates all azimuthal mode coupling (JmBessel functions,m > 0), and minimizes the coupling to the lowest order J0evanescent mode. If neither transducer can be placed at the center, 90° azimuthal separation will eliminate all J1modes. Placing one or both at R = 0.6a from the center then minimizes J0effects. These configurations make the & contribution to pmnegligible for |zin/R0| > 2, but experimental study near Zinminima (i.e., input admittance maxima) still poses special problems whose reduction is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1489-1495
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1981
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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