Implementing handheld computers as tools for first-grade writers

Wilma D. Kuhlman, Kathy Everts Danielson, Elizabeth J. Campbell, Neal W. Topp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


All humans use objects in their environment as tools for actions. Some tools are more useful than others for certain people and populations. This paper describes how different first-graders used handheld computers as tools when writing. While all 17 children in the observed classroom were competent users of their handheld computers, their use of handhelds for pre-writing differed among the students. Some students' thinking was clearly enhanced with the use of handhelds before writing. Other students showed writing competence without referring back to their pre-writing work on the handheld. No students were unable to operate their handhelds in the pre-writing process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)173-185
Number of pages13
JournalComputers in the Schools
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Jan 11 2006


  • Elementary
  • Handheld computers
  • Handheld educational softwasre
  • Pre-writing process
  • Primary children
  • Writing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Education
  • Library and Information Sciences


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