Implementing Longitudinal Wellbeing Interventions and Evaluation Among Midwestern Healthcare Workers During COVID-19

Robin M. Lally, Rachael Schmidt, Kevin Kupzyk, Steven P. Wengel, Katrina Poppert Cordts, Adam C. Mills, Sarah E. Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare workers throughout the world has been reported, but most studies have been cross-sectional and excluded the Midwestern U.S. healthcare workforce. Objective: This study aimed to longitudinally assess the psychological wellbeing and wellness strategies used by a Midwestern academic health system’s workforce at multiple points throughout waves of the COVID-19 pandemic to inform ongoing implementation of appropriate wellness activities. Methods: An anonymous REDCap survey linked within our team-developed wellness education was posted in the employee online newsletter in April (T1), July (T2), October 2020 (T3), and May 2021 (T4). Surveys were open to all employees (approx. 9000) for approximately 12 days at each time point. Anxiety, depressive symptoms, stress, self-efficacy, and self-care activities were assessed. Following each data collection, team members discussed findings and planned wellness education implementation. Results: Response ranged from n = 731 (T1) to n = 172 (T4). Moderate to severe stress was reported by 29.5% (n = 203) of respondents at T1 and 34.0% (n = 108) at T2. At T3, all psychological symptoms significantly increased (p <.001) as COVID-19 surged, with 48.5% (n = 141) of respondents reporting moderate to severe stress. At T4, stress significantly declined (p <.001). Exercise was the most frequently reported coping strategy. Conclusions: Mental health symptoms reported by a Midwestern healthcare workforce increased during surges of COVID-19 hospitalizations. Individuals in non-patient contact roles experienced symptom levels similar to and at times with greater severity than healthcare personnel with patient contact roles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)296-306
Number of pages11
JournalWestern journal of nursing research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • COVID-19
  • burnout
  • health personnel
  • health promotion
  • hospital personnel
  • mental health
  • nurses
  • professional
  • wellbeing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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