Improved Genome Editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (i-GONAD): Protocol Steps and Additional Notes

Masahiro Sato, Ayaka Nakamura, Marie Sekiguchi, Takashi Matsuwaki, Hiromi Miura, Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Shigeru Kakuta, Masato Ohtsuka

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Scopus citations


The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology has made it possible to produce genome-edited (GE) animals more easily and rapidly than before. In most cases, GE mice are produced by microinjection (MI) or by in vitro electroporation (EP) of CRISPR reagents into fertilized eggs (zygotes). Both of these approaches require ex vivo handling of isolated embryos and their subsequent transfer into another set of mice (called recipient or pseudopregnant mice). Such experiments are performed by highly skilled technicians (especially for MI). We recently developed a novel genome editing method, called “GONAD (Genome-editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery),” which can completely eliminate the ex vivo handling of embryos. We also made improvements to the GONAD method, termed “improved-GONAD (i-GONAD).” The i-GONAD method involves injection of CRISPR reagents into the oviduct of an anesthetized pregnant female using a mouthpiece-controlled glass micropipette under a dissecting microscope, followed by EP of the entire oviduct allowing the CRISPR reagents to enter into the zygotes present inside the oviduct, in situ. After the i-GONAD procedure, the mouse recovered from anesthesia is allowed to continue the pregnancy to full term to deliver its pups. The i-GONAD method does not require pseudopregnant female animals for embryo transfer, unlike the methods relying on ex vivo handling of zygotes. Therefore, the i-GONAD method can reduce the number of animals used, compared to the traditional methods. In this chapter, we describe some newer technical tips about the i-GONAD method. Additionally, even though the detailed protocols of GONAD and i-GONAD have been published elsewhere (Gurumurthy et al., Curr Protoc Hum Genet 88:15.8.1–15.8.12, 2016 Nat Protoc 14:2452–2482, 2019), we provide all the protocol steps of i-GONAD in this chapter so that the reader can find most of the information, needed for performing i-GONAD experiments, in one place.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages16
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Electroporation
  • Fertilized egg
  • Genome editing
  • Knock-in
  • Knockout
  • Mouse
  • Oviduct
  • Preimplantation embryos
  • Ribonucleoprotein
  • Zygotes
  • gRNA
  • i-GONAD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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