Improved synthesis of graphene oxide

Daniela C. Marcano, Dmitry V. Kosynkin, Jacob M. Berlin, Alexander Sinitskii, Zhengzong Sun, Alexander Slesarev, Lawrence B. Alemany, Wei Lu, James M. Tour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10059 Scopus citations


An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers' method (KMnO4, NaNO3,H 2SO4) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO3, increasing the amount of KMnO4, and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers' method or Hummers' method with additional KMnO4. Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers' method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers' method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the construction of devices composed of the subsequent CCG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4806-4814
Number of pages9
JournalACS Nano
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 24 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon
  • Graphene
  • Graphite
  • Nanostructure
  • Oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


Dive into the research topics of 'Improved synthesis of graphene oxide'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this