The BB2 receptor subtype, of the bombesin family of receptors, has been shown to be highly overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including prostate cancer. Bombesin (BBN), a 14-amino acid peptide, has been shown to target the BB2 receptor with high affinity. 64Cu (half-life = 12.7 h, β+: 18%, Eβ+max = 653 keV; β-: 37%, Eβ-max = 578 keV) is a radioisotope that has clinical potential for application in both diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy. Recently, new chelation systems such as 1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2] hexadecane-4,11-diacetic acid (CB-TE2A) have been reported to significantly stabilize the 64Cu radiometal in vivo. The increased stability of the 64Cu-CB-TE2A chelate complex has been shown to significantly reduce nontarget retention compared with tetraazamacrocycles such as 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodoadecane-N,N′,N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The aim of this study was to determine whether the CB-TE2A chelation system could significantly improve the in vivo stability of 64Cu bombesin analogs. The study directly compares 64Cu bombesin analogs using the CB-TE2A and DOTA chelation systems in a prostate cancer xenograft SCID (severely compromised immunodeficient) mouse model. Methods: The CB-TE2A-8-AOC-BBN(7-14)NH2 and DOTA-8-AOC-BBN(7-14) NH2 conjugates were synthesized and radiolabeled with 64Cu. The receptor-binding affinity and internalization profile of each metallated conjugate was evaluated using PC-3 cells. Pharmacokinetic and small-animal PET/CT studies were performed using female SCID mice bearing PC-3 xenografts. Results: In vivo BB2 receptor targeting was confirmed by tumor uptake values of 6.95 ± 2.27 and 4.95 ± 0.91 %ID/g (percentage injected dose per gram) at the 15-min time point for the 64Cu-CB-TE2A and 64Cu-DOTA radioconjugates, respectively. At the 24-h time point, liver uptake was substantially reduced for the 64Cu-CB-TE2A radioconjugate (0.21 ± 0.06 %ID/g) compared with the 64Cu-DOTA radioconjugate (7.80 ± 1.51 %ID/g). The 64Cu-CB-TE2A-8-AOC- BBN(7-14)NH2 radioconjugate demonstrated significant clearance, 98.60 ± 0.28 %ID, from the mouse at 24 h after injection. In contrast, only 67.84 ± 5.43 %ID of the 64Cu activity was excreted using the 64Cu-DOTA-8-AOC-BBN(7-14)NH2 radioconjugate because of nontarget retention. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic and small-animal PET/CT studies demonstrate significantly improved nontarget tissue clearance for the 64Cu-CB-TE2A8-AOC-BBN(7-14)NH2. This is attributed to the improved in vivo stability of the 64Cu-CB-TE2A chelate complex as compared with the 64Cu-DOTA chelate complex.
- BB2 receptor
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging