Robotic laparoscopic surgery is evolving to include in vivo robotic assistants. The impetus for the development of this technology is to provide surgeons with additional viewpoints and unconstrained manipulators that improve safety and reduce patient trauma. A family of these robots have been developed to provide vision and task assistance. Fixed-base and mobile robots have been designed and tested in animal models with much success. A cholecystectomy, prostatectomy, and nephrectomy have all been performed with the assistance of these robots. These early successful tests show how in vivo laparoscopic robotics may be part of the next advancement in surgical technology.
- In vivo
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