Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3-kinases) have been implicated in controlling cell proliferation, actin cytoskeleton organization, and the regulation of vesicle trafficking between intracellular organelles. There are at least three genes in Dictyostelium discoideum, DdPIK1, DdPIK2, and DdPIK3, encoding proteins most closely related to the mammalian 110-kD PI-3 kinase in amine acid sequence within the kinase domain. A mutant disrupted in DdPIK1 and DdPIK2 (Addpik1/ddpik2) grows slowly in liquid medium. Using FITC- dextran (FD) as a fluid phase marker, we determined that the mutant strain was impaired in pinocytosis but normal in phagocytosis of beads or bacteria. Microscopic and biochemical approaches indicated that the transport rate of fluid-phase from acidic lysosomes to non-acidic postlysosomal vacuoles was reduced in mutant cells resulting in a reduction in efflux of fluid phase. Mutant cells were also almost completely devoid of large postlysosomal vacuoles as determined by transmission EM. However, Addpik1/ddpik2 cells functioned normally in the regulation of other membrane traffic. For instance, radiolabel pulse-chase experiments indicated that the transport rates along the secretory pathway and the sorting efficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-mannosidase were normal in the mutant strain. Furthermore, the contractile vacuole network of membranes (probably connected to the endosomal pathway by membrane traffic) was functionally and morphologically normal in mutant cells. Light microscopy revealed that Addpik1/ddpik2 cells appeared smaller and more irregularly shaped than wild-type cells; 1-3% of the mutant cells were also connected by a thin cytoplasmic bridge. Scanning EM indicated that the mutant cells contained numerous filopodia projecting laterally and vertically from the cell surface, and fluorescent microscopy indicated that these filopodia were enriched in F-actin which accumulated in a cortical pattern in control cells. Finally, Δddpik1/ddpik2 cells responded and moved more rapidly towards cAMP. Together, these results suggest that Dictyostelium DdPIK1 and DdPIK2 gene products regulate multiple steps in the endosomal pathway, and function in the regulation of cell shape and movement perhaps through changes in actin organization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology