Increased Hepatic Stiffness in Young Adults After Biventricular Repair of Congenital Heart Disease

Jin Zhang, Ling Li, Vivek Jani, Jonathan W. Cramer, Scott E. Fletcher, Ari M. Cedars, David A. Danford, Shelby Kutty, Shaija S. Kutty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: This study evaluated hepatic stiffness by shear wave elastography to investigate subclinical hepatic changes in a cohort of patients with congenital biventricular heart disease (BHD). Methods: The BHD patients and age-matched healthy controls were prospectively recruited for hepatic ultrasonography and shear wave elastography. Real-time B-mode imaging with Doppler was performed for celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, and main portal vein, and hepatic shear wave elastography was assessed. Vascular Doppler indices included peak velocities; velocity time integral, resistive, pulsatility, and acceleration indices; and portal vein volumetric flow. One-way analysis of variance was used for comparisons between controls, BHD, and a cohort of Glenn and Fontan patients. Results: In all, 66 subjects were included. Thirty-six subjects were in the BHD group (male, 25; female, 11; mean age 27.4 ± 4.6 years; mean weight 76.8 ± 18.5 kg), and 30 were healthy controls (male, 11; female, 23, mean age 27.4 ± 3.8 years; mean weight 70 ± 17.2 kg). Shear wave elastography was increased in BHD (8.11 ± 2.07 kPa) compared with controls (5.44 ± 1.18 kPa; P < .001). Hepatic stiffness in BHD was significantly different from that in the Fontan cohort but not in the infant Glenn cohort. Conclusions: Increased hepatic stiffness was observed in young adults with repaired BHD. Although cause is not established, possibilities include hepatic congestion early in life or elevated central venous pressures due to right heart burden. Further research is required to determine whether these patients will ultimately have clinically relevant liver disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1335-1341
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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