Incubation pattern and foraging effort in the female water Pipit Anthus Spinoletta

Claudia Rauter, Heinz Ulrich Reyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Incubation and foraging patterns of female Water Pipits Anthus spinoletta were studied in two breeding seasons in an Alpine valley of Switzerland. Decreased temperature reduced the length of periods spent off the nest (inattentive period), while decreased food availability led to a reduction in time spent incubating (attentiveness), shorter periods spent on the nest (attentive period), more frequent inattentive periods and higher foraging effort, measured as the product of frequency of inattentive periods and twice the flight distance to foraging sites. The negative relation between food availability and foraging effort resulted from more frequent foraging bouts and longer flight distances under poor food conditions. Feeding of the incubating female by the male did not affect foraging effort and attentiveness but did change the temporal pattern of inattentive periods from a few long to several short inattentive periods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-446
Number of pages6
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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