Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common comorbidity that leads to poor outcomes in people at high risk for development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Vitamin D is a possible mediator. In the vitamin D and type 2 diabetes study (D2d), we investigated the relationship of baseline indices of NAFLD with incident T2D and whether the effect of vitamin D on diabetes was modified by NAFLD. Methods: Cross-sectional associations of indices of NAFLD with glycemia and vitamin D status were assessed in 3972 individuals screened for the D2d study. In those with prediabetes randomized to vitamin D or placebo (n = 2423), we examined longitudinal associations of NAFLD indices with incident T2D. We used validated non-invasive scores to assess steatosis [(hepatic steatosis index (HSI); NAFLD-liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS)] and advanced fibrosis [fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index; AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI)]. Results: Eighty-five percent of screened participants had likely steatosis by HSI and 71 % by NAFLD-LFS; 3 % were likely to have advanced fibrosis by FIB-4 and 1.2 % by APRI. FIB-4 indicated that 20.4 % of individuals require further follow up to assess liver health. Steatosis and fibrosis scores were higher among participants with worse glycemia. The NAFLD-LFS and APRI predicted development of diabetes (hazard ratios [95%CI] 1.35 [1.07, 1.70]; P = 0.012) and 2.36 (1.23, 4.54; P = 0.010), respectively). The effect of vitamin D on diabetes risk was not modified by baseline NAFLD indices. Individuals with likely steatosis had a smaller increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in response to vitamin D than those without steatosis. Conclusions: The predicted high prevalence of steatosis, the need for further fibrosis workup, and the relationship between liver health and incident T2D suggest that routine screening with clinically accessible scores may be an important strategy to reduce disease burden.
- Vitamin D
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism