Infarct in the heart: What’s MMP-9 got to do with it?

Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Upendra Chalise, Michael J. Daseke, Shelby Konfrst, Jeffrey D. Salomon, Paras K. Mishra, Merry L. Lindsey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Over the past three decades, numerous studies have shown a strong connection between matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels and myocardial infarction (MI) mortality and left ventricle remodeling and dysfunction. Despite this fact, clinical trials using MMP-9 inhibitors have been disappointing. This review focuses on the roles of MMP-9 in MI wound healing. Infiltrating leukocytes, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells secrete MMP-9 during all phases of cardiac repair. MMP-9 both exacerbates the inflammatory response and aids in inflammation resolution by stimulating the pro-inflammatory to reparative cell transition. In addition, MMP-9 has a dual effect on neovascularization and prevents an overly stiff scar. Here, we review the complex role of MMP-9 in cardiac wound healing, and highlight the importance of targeting MMP-9 only for its detrimental actions. Therefore, delineating signaling pathways downstream of MMP-9 is critical.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number491
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Extracellular matrix
  • Inflammation
  • Macrophage
  • Matrix metalloproteinases
  • Neutrophil
  • Remodeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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