With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, improved survival of people with HIV (PWH) is accompanied with increased prevalence of HIV-associated comorbidities. Chronic lung anomalies are recognized as one of the most devastating sequelae in PWH. The limited available data describing the lung complications in PWH with a history of opioid abuse warrants more research to better define the course of disease pathogenesis. The current study was conducted to investigate the progression of lung tissue remodeling in a morphine (Mor)–exposed rhesus macaque model of SIV infection. Pathologic features of lung remodeling, including histopathologic changes, oxidative stress, inflammation, and proliferation of fibroblasts, were investigated in archival lung tissues of SIVmac-251/macaque model with or without Mor dependence. Lungs of Mor-exposed, SIV-infected macaques exhibited significant fibrotic changes and collagen deposition in the alveolar and the bronchiolar region. There was increased oxidative stress, profibrotic transforming growth factor-β, fibroblast proliferation and trans-differentiation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and matrix degradation in SIV-infected macaques, which was further exacerbated in the lungs of Mor-exposed macaques. Interestingly, there was decreased inflammation-associated remodeling in Mor-dependent SIV-infected macaques compared with SIV-infected macaques that did not receive Mor. Thus, the current findings suggest that SIV independently induces fibrotic changes in macaque lungs, which is further aggravated by Mor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)380-391
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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